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David, Brad, Richard and William are lost in the outback and must get by relying simply on their wits. Is that enough to ensure their survival? Listen in to find out!
"Greta Thunberg, un perroquet"
Driven by a towering lead performance, Synonyms is a potent and profound look at the intersection between toxic masculinity and nationalism. The analysis comprises of an iterative process: moving back and forth between the tweets and the conversations around them, as well as the rich descriptive narrative of each participant. We applied the five key themes and identified more detailed subthemes.
The entire coding process was recorded in a MS Word document.
- Chrétien de Troyes;
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- Lo strano caso del dottor Jekill e mister Hyde: 66 (Classici) (Italian Edition).
- Derniers numéros.
- 3. Conférence Annuelle de la SEDI 12222;
- The Village Voice.
This enabled us to create a thematic map with different levels for themes and subthemes, providing for easier navigation throughout the different forms of evidence. The following sections present the outline of this thematic map or narrative while combining representative examples and relevant insights from academic literature to show the richness and complexity of the data.
Each discussion session started with a request for a short self-introduction by the participants. To emphasize the focus of the study, the request explicitly referred to descriptions in terms of authorship. The responses to this question immediately revealed a contrast among the participants. On the other hand, various participants problematized these labels and their connotations in light of the practices in which they engage as literary producers.
The first group descriptions consist of three types. Secondly, descriptions that use traditional genre labels for classifying literary work. Thirdly, descriptions that use traditional audience labels for identifying targeted or intended readership. All of these descriptions represent and reproduce the dominant discourse related to print literature.
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The participants recognize that these labels and self-descriptions also impose a number of limitations on literary producers, not only in relation to form and practice, but also socially. They feel that social media allow them to reach out and receive recognition for their work and engagement from others, both producers and recipients of literary fiction.
Creating literary production is presented as a passion and related to a strong need to share. In addition, the Twitter Fiction Festival is also presented as a place to explore that passion and discover interesting experiments of others. The second group of descriptions is more fluid and represents a negotiation for alternative labels based on creative practices. They consider these labels to be restrictive because of the reference to a particular set of actions related to the production of print literature and exclusion of various creative digital practices.
As a consequence, they describe themselves as literary producers by describing the creative practices in which they engage. Like any art form, literature has many guises. These characteristics are fragmentation, curation, responsiveness and playfulness. Fiction is published most frequently in a single volume or novel, but can also take form as short stories, flash fiction, fables, fairy tales, plays and poetry.
Fiction writing on Twitter mimics this kind of fragmented publishing as the length of individual tweets is restricted to characters at a time. The participants explain how these features of Twitter challenge them to adapt their writing practices. Several participants refer to these challenges as the main difference between tweeting and traditional writing. Furthermore, they describe tweeting as quick, fun and unpretentious. In contrast, they describe traditional writing as a craft that requires a lot of time and hard work.
Traditional writing as a form of literary communication is said to be cold, lonely and heart breaking. The participants also express this idea through the image of The poor poet Spitzweg, As such, they confirm the dominant perception of traditional literary communication as a solitary practice also see Eagleton, ; Long, By providing details about their creative process, the participants point out that tweeting can actually involve rewriting and careful planning. This results in two interesting conversations about adaptation through literary practice.
The first conversation relates to spelling and grammatical errors and the value that is attached to them in terms of shame or poetic potential see Figure 7.
The second conversation relates to literary genres and traditions and how they can be adopted and adapted in social media environments see Figure 8. Like Alberto Chimal, many other participants perform their creative practice in terms of planning and structuring of a reading path. These discussions touch upon both the challenges and opportunities presented in this respect by the Twitter environment. The absence of synchronicity and the variety of entry points in the narrative are simultaneously problematized and celebrated.
These messages are automatically organized in reverse chronological order boyd, et al. This makes it difficult for readers to trace the different fragments of the narrative or for the literary producers to attract the attention of new readers. Again, the participants compare tweeting and traditional writing. Their praise focuses on the opportunities to create anchor points that allow readers to navigate from fragment to fragment. This allows literary producers to create direct links between fragments, thereby creating a reading path.
Other design elements include the mentioning, retweeting and hashtagging functions which allow literary producers to create conversations see boyd, et al. In addition to creating a networked archive of messages see Figure 13 , these functions also allow the combination of multiple accounts or voices see Figure Reversing literary communication from solitary writing practice to responsive performance. Literary production and reception have been part of shared real-time experiences for many centuries.
As Ong argues, literary texts were communicated orally before the introduction and commodification of books.
It was only after books had become popular and easy to produce that printed text became the dominant means to communicate literary text. Regardless, literary communication practices continue to have a performance aspect as authors still write their texts for an audience Ong, ; see also Bauman, , and often even perform these texts live during author readings. Nonetheless, literary production is rarely seen as an act of performance, as is clear from the image of the solitary writer.
This includes the embodiment of characters or voices as well as responsiveness towards the audience — i. Josh describes the character of FathomButterfly as his alter ego. In addition, he also presents JoshGosfield — i. In this case, the conversation focuses on the danger of automated tweeting and the lack of responsiveness.
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